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Exploring Capital Flows in Chicago

We analyzed investment in Chicago between 2010 and 2020 in the asset classes listed below. The unit of analysis is a census tract, using 2010 boundaries, and some tables are aggregated to the city level. These data are inflation-adjusted to 2021 dollars. Each asset class is scaled by either the number of total households, employees, renter-occupied units, or owner-occupied units in a given tract. This enables comparison between tracts of different population sizes. The data are separated into tabs that reflect the different visualizations available in the accompanying feature.

Single-family: This category includes purchase loans for owner-occupied single-family properties of one to four units, as reported in Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data for 2010–20. We scale single-family investment by the number of owner-occupied households so we can make legitimate comparisons across places and across neighborhoods within a place.

Multifamily: This category includes purchase loans for multifamily properties of five or more units, as reported in Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data for 2010–20. We scale multifamily investment by the number of renter-occupied households living in properties with five or more units.

Nonresidential: This category includes loans for nonresidential real estate (e.g., commercial, industrial, and agricultural properties), as tracked by CoreLogic for 2010–20. We scale nonresidential investment by the number of employees working in the area.

Small business: This category includes small-business loans, as measured by loans to businesses with revenues below $1 million, reported by bank lenders pursuant to Community Reinvestment Act requirements for 2010–20 and as measured by Small Business Administration guaranteed lending through the 7(a) and 504 programs. We scale small-business investment by the number of small-business employees.

Mission: This category includes “mission lending” reported by community development financial institutions and other socially motivated lenders compiled from various data sources, including transaction-level reports from the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, data reported to the Opportunity Finance Network, mission loans identified in CoreLogic datasets, and investments under the New Markets Tax Credit program; Data are for 2010–20. We scale mission investment by the number of households.

Public: This category includes federal community development funding, including the US Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME Investment Partnerships Program, Community Development Block Grant Program, Section 108, Choice Neighborhoods, and HOPE VI Public and Indian Housing and Main Street grants; Low-Income Housing Tax Credit investments; and US Environmental Protection Agency brownfields and brownfields redevelopment grants for 2005–18. For Chicago-specific analyses, this category also includes public financing provided by the city, namely Tax Increment Financing, the Neighborhood Opportunity Fund, Property Tax Abatements, the Small Business Improvement Fund, the Affordable Housing Opportunity Fund, Donation Tax Credits, and tax-exempt bonds for 2010–20, though not all sources are available for all years. We scale public investment by the number of households.

Overall: This category includes the sum of all the above types of investment, scaled by the number of households.

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Urban Institute. 2022. Exploring Capital Flows in Chicago. Accessible from Data developed at the Urban Institute, and made available under the ODC-BY 1.0 Attribution License.